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Pashto Philosophy

انتیستنس

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کينډۍ:فيلسوف-مالوماتبکس

آنتیستنس كلبي فلسفې بنسټ اېښودونكې دى. چې په ۴۴۵م ز كال د آتن ښار كې دې نړۍ ته سترګې پرانېستي دي. په ځوانه ځوانۍ كې د وخت په پوځ كې سرتېرۍ ؤ، كله چې د ګوجياس سوفيست يا ګوګياس سوفيست په نامه فېلسفوف دده وړتيا وليده، نو د خپلې روزنې لاندې يې ونيوو. خو له يو څه مودې وروسته يې له پامه بد راغې. نو له دې وروسته د سقرات څنګ ته ورغې او د هغه څخه په اغيزمن كېدو سره چې يو ساده ډوله، په لږ څه بسيا كوونكې سړې ؤ، څنګ يې ونيول.

دې د سقرات په غونډو كې له شلېدلو جامو او چاودلي مخ سره كښېناست. نكل كا چې يوه ورځ سقرات ده ته وويل: ولې دومره ځانښودنه! زه ستا لويي (غرور) د شلېدلو او زړو جامو له سوريو څخه ګورم. انتيستنس د سقرات له مرګ څخه وروسته د خپل ښوونځې د بنسټ ډبره په ۳۹۹م.ز كال كېښوده. هغه ځاى چې ده د ښوونځي لپاره ټاكلې ؤ، د لوبو د لوبغاړي څنګ ته د سينارګس (Cynosarges) په نامه ځاى، چې د سپن سپي مانا وركوي، وټاكه. داسې دلائل وړاندې كېږي، چې د ښوونځي په داسې ځاى كې جوړونه چې د سپين سپي په مانا دى، نو له دې وجې دده ښوونځې د كلبيانو په نام يادېږي. ډېر هغه كسان چې دې ښوونځي ته يې مخه كړې ده، ناداره، او بېچاره خلك ول.

انتیستنس به يو څادر او چپنه اغوستله، او تل مدام په يې د خپلو شيانو د ساتلو لپاره يوه بوجۍ له ځان سره ساتله. دده د دا ډول جامو اغوستل، ورو ورو د كلبيانو د ښوونځي لپاره رسمي جامې وګرځېدې. د سقرات په څېر انتيستنس هم فضيلت د نېكمرغۍ او خوشبختۍ لپاره اړين او په ځينو وختونو كافي ګڼلو. دده په ګروهه فضيلت هم د پوهې يوه څانګه ده، چې په زدړه كړې سره نه ترلاسه كېدونكې دى. هغه د خپلو مذهبي غوښتنو ته په پام سره يې فضيلت له شيطاني غوښتنو (خوند، هوى او هوس) څخه لرېوالې ګاڼه. ده د همدې مذهبي نظر په اساس نړۍ هم د خداي هوش تر كنټرول لاندې ګڼله.


ژوندسمول

آنتیستنس له ميلاد څخه ۴۴۵م.ز كاله مخكې په اتن ښار كې وزېږېد. دده مور يوه Thracian.[1] وه. ده په ځوانۍ د تناګرا په جګړه كې برخه واخيسته. دې لومړې د ګورجيوس او بيا د سقرات زده كوونكې پاتې شوې دى. دا ښوونكي يې ترمرګه هم پرې نښودل، ان تردې چې ددوي په مړينو كې هم حاضر ؤ. [2] He never forgave his master's persecutors, and is even

said to have been instrumental in procuring their punishment.[3] He survived the Battle of Leuctra (371 BC), as he is reported to have compared the victory of the Thebans to a set of schoolboys beating their master.[4] He was apparently still alive in 366 BC,[5] and died at Athens c. 365 BC, at the age of 70.[6] He is said to have lectured in the Cynosarges, a gymnasium for the use of Athenians born of foreign mothers, near the temple of Hercules. Diogenes Laërtius says that his works filled ten volumes, but of these, only fragments remain. His favourite style seems to have been dialogues, some of them being vehement attacks on his contemporaries, as on Alcibiades in the second of his two works entitled Cyrus, on Gorgias in his Archelaus and on Plato in his Satho.[7] His style was pure and elegant, and Theopompus even said that Plato stole from him many of his thoughts.[8] Cicero, however, calls him "a man more intelligent than learned" (کينډۍ:Lang-la).[9] He possessed considerable powers of wit and sarcasm, and was fond of playing upon words; saying, for instance, that he would rather fall among crows (korakes) than flatterers (kolakes), for the one devour the dead, but the other the living. Two declamations of his are preserved, named Ajax and Ulysses, which are purely rhetorical.

د آنتیستنس فلسفي اندونهسمول

اخلاقسمول

Antisthenes was a pupil of Socrates, from whom he imbibed the fundamental ethical precept that virtue, not pleasure, is the end of existence. In all that the wise man does, Antisthenes said, he conforms to perfect virtue, and pleasure is not only unnecessary to man, but a positive evil. He is reported to have held pain and even ill-repute (کينډۍ:Lang-el) to be blessings, and that madness is preferable to pleasure. It is, however, probable that he did not consider all pleasure worthless, but only that which results from the gratification of sensual or artificial desires, for we find him praising the pleasures which spring "from out of one's soul",[10] and the enjoyments of a wisely chosen friendship.[3] The supreme good he placed in a life lived according to virtue, - virtue consisting in action, which when obtained is never lost, and exempts the wise man from error. It is closely connected with reason, but to enable it to develop itself in action, and to be sufficient for happiness, it requires the aid of Socratic strength (کينډۍ:Lang-el).[3]

له طبيعت څخه وراخوا آندسمول

The Physics of Antisthenes contained a theory of the nature of the gods,[11] in which he contended for the Unity of the Deity, and that man is unable to know him by any sensible representation, since he is unlike any being on earth.[12]

منطقسمول

In logic, Antisthenes was troubled by the problem of the One and the Many. As a proper nominalist, he held that definition and predication are either false or tautological, since we can only say that every individual is what it is, and can give no more than a description of its qualities, e. g. that silver is like tin in colour.[13] Thus he disbelieved the Platonic system of Ideas which do not exist save for the consciousness which thinks them. "A horse", said Antisthenes, "I can see, but horsehood I cannot see." Definition is merely a circuitous method of stating an identity: "a tree is a vegetable growth" is logically no more than "a tree is a tree."

آنتیستنس او كلبيانسمول

In later times, Antisthenes became to be seen as the founder of the Cynics, but it is by no means certain that he would have understood or recognized the term. Aristotle, writing a generation later refers several times to Antisthenes (and his followers "the Antistheneans") but never associates him with Cynics, nor with Aristotle's contemporary Diogenes of Sinope. There are many later tales about Diogenes dogging Antisthenes footsteps and becoming his faithful hound, but it is not certain whether the two men ever actually met. Even the story about Antisthenes lecturing in the Cynosarges gymnasium may be a later desire to link him with a place associated with Cynic philosophy, although as the son of a foreign-born mother, Antisthenes would probably have frequented the place. It is true, however, that Antisthenes adopted a rigorous ascetic lifestyle,[14] and he certainly developed many of the principles of Cynic philosophy which became an inspiration for Diogenes and many later Cynics.


تړلي موضوعګانې سمول

سرچينې سمول

  1. د فېلسوفان په تشيالي كې پاړسو وېبپاڼه


يادښتونه او سرچينېسمول

کينډۍ:Reflist

باندنۍ تړنېسمول

bg:Антистен ca:Antístenes d'Atenes da:Antisthenes de:Antisthenes en:Antisthenes eo:Antisteno es:Antístenes fi:Antisthenes fr:Antisthène gl:Antístenes he:אנטיסתנס hr:Antisten iz Atene hu:Antiszthenész (filozófus) it:Antistene ja:アンティステネス la:Antisthenes lb:Antisthenes nl:Antisthenes no:Antisthenes pl:Antystenes pt:Antístenes ru:Антисфен sh:Antisten sk:Antisténes z Atén sv:Antisthenes tr:Antisthenes


د درک ستونزه: <ref> tags exist, but no <references/> tag was found

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